Istanbul is one of the 81 provinces of the city and country in Turkey. It is the most populous city in the country in terms of economic, historical and socio-cultural aspects. In terms of economic size, the city ranks first in Europe in terms of population and in sixth place after Lagos in terms of population in terms of population, taking into account municipal boundaries.
Istanbul is located in the north-west of Turkey, along the Marmara coast and the Bosphorus, to surround the Golden Horn. Istanbul is an intercontinental city, the European side is called the European Side or the Rumeli Side, and the Asian Side is called the Asian Side or the Asian Side. In the history, the western border of Istanbul, which was first established on the half island of Marmara Sea, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn, was the city of Istanbul. In the process of development and growth, the city has 39 cities, 4 of which have been enlarged four times, each time by building the walls to the west. There are a total of 40 municipalities within the boundaries of the metropolitan municipality.
One of the oldest cities in the world, Istanbul was the capital of the Roman Empire between 330-395, the Byzantine Empire between 395-1204 and 1261-1453, the Latin Empire between 1204-1261 and the Ottoman Empire between 1453-1922. Istanbul was also the center of Islam until 1924, when the Caliphate was removed from 1517, when it passed through the Ottoman Empire.
Significant information on the history of humanity has been obtained with archaeological finds discovered later in the year. With the stone tools removed from the Yarımburgaz Cave, primitive human traces appeared to be based on 400,000 years ago. The excavations carried out on the Anatolian side and the researches connected to them showed that the first established human community based on agriculture and livestock in the city was Fikirtepe Culture dated to 5500 BC. These archaeological finds are not only Istanbul's, but also the oldest human traces of the whole Marmara Region. The first city-based settlements within the borders of Istanbul are Kalkedon on the Anatolian side; Byzantion on the European side. Having been the capital of hundreds of years for the governments that were under the sovereignty of the Republican era, Istanbul lost its characteristic with the transfer of the capital to Ankara on 13 October 1923; But it has continued to be the center of trade, industry, transportation, tourism, education, culture and arts.
The geopolitical importance of Istanbul is quite high because it is home to the Bosphorus, which connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separates Asia from Europe. Today, there are natural harbors that are filled or lost. Due to these features, there have been long-standing sovereignty disputes and wars on the territory of the region. The main rivers are Riva, Kagithane and Alibey. The provincial lands are less hilly and the highest point is Aydos Tepesi in the Kartal district. The main natural lakes in the area are Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece and Durusu lakes. Transition characteristics between the Black Sea and Mediterranean macro climates are seen in the province and its immediate vicinity. Air temperatures and rainfall averages are uneven; The vegetation is unstable.