Ephesus (Ancient Greek: Ἔφεσος Ephesos) was an ancient Greek city located on the western coast of Anatolia, within the boundaries of the Selcuk county of present-day İzmir province, and later an important Roman city. It was one of the twelve cities of Ionia in the classical Greek era. The Foundation Polished Stone Age dates back to 6000 BC. Ephesus, which was included in the World Heritage Tentative List by UNESCO in 1994, was registered as a World Heritage in 2015.
In 1996, Çukuriçi Höyük was found on the shores of the Derbent Stream between mandarin gardens, about 100 m south west of the road triangle of Selçuk, Aydın and Ephesus. In this mound, stone and bronze axes, needles, burnt ceramic fragments, spindle whorls, obsidian (volcanic glass) and sileks (flint stone), sea shells, grinding and finishing tools were found in this mound under the presidency of archaeologist Adil Evren. In the light of the evaluations made, it was determined that there was a settlement and life in Çukuriçi Höyük from the Neolithic Period to the Early Bronze Age. Arvalya Höyük was found in the area of Gül Hanim at the end of the Arvalya River at approximately 8 km of Selcuk, Kusadasi road. Çukuriçi and Arvalya (Gül Hanim) mounds, the history of the immediate surroundings of Ephesus reaches up to the Neolithic Period.
The port city of Ephesus, where immigrants from Greece began to live in 1050 BC, moved around Temple of Artemis in 560 BC. Today, Ephesus was founded by Lisimahos of Alexander the Great in 300 BC. The city has autonomously repressed co-money with the city of Apameia Kibotos from Rome. These cities began to behave very brightly semi-autonomously in Asia Minor in the classical period. Lisimahos rebuilds it according to the "Grid Plan" found by Hippodamos, the militia. According to this plan, all the streets and streets in the city cut each other vertically.
Ephesus, the most glorious period of the Hellenistic and Roman ages, was the capital of the Asian Province during the Roman Emperor Augustus and its population exceeded 200,000 people during that period (1st - 2nd century BC). In this period, every place is equipped with monumental constructions made of marble.
Ephesus Efes Turkey
In the 4th century, the harbor was filled with trade in Ephesus. Emperor Hadrian cleans the port several times. The port is filled with alluviums from the Marnas Creek and the Small Menderes river from the north. Ephesus moves away from the sea. In the 7th century, the Arabs attacked this shore. In the Byzantine period, Ephesus came to Ayasuluk Hill in Selçuk, which was established for the first time and was replaced by Turks in 1330. Ayasuluk, the center of the Aydınoğulları, began to shrink gradually from the 16th century. Today, Selçuk district is in the region.
In the frieze at the ruins of Ephesus, at the entrance to the Temple of Hadrian, Ephesus's 3,000-year-old founding legend includes the following: Androklos, the brave son of King of Athens Kodros, wants to explore the Aegean. First, he consults the priests of the Apollo Temple in Delphi. The heroes say to him that he will build a city where the fish and the pens point. Androklos sails into the dark blue waters of the Aegean while thinking about the meaning of these words ... They decide to land as they come to the bay in the mouth of Kaystros (Küçük Menderes) River. When they burn the fish they keep on fire, a boar that escapes through the shrubs flees by grabbing the fish. Here is the prophecy. They decide to build a city here ...
Ephesus, which is the main gate between East and West, was an important port city. This position has made it the most important political and commercial center of Ephesus's era and the capital of Asia in the Roman period. Ephesus does not simply owe its importance in antiquity. The greatest temple of Artemis culture based on the ancient Anatolian (Cybele) tradition of Anatolia also takes place in Ephesus.
In the 6th century BC, Efes, who was in the forefront of science, art and culture with Milet, raised famous people such as wise Heraclitus, dreamer Artemidoros, poet Callinos and Hipponaks, grammatical knowledge Zenodotos, physicians Soranos and Rufus.
Since Ephesus has been replaced many times throughout its history, its remains extend over a wide area of about 8 kilometers. Ayasuluk Hill, Artemision, Ephesus and Selçuk are visited by an average of 1.5 million tourists per year. The main structures and works in Ephesus, the first city made entirely of marble, are described below:
The Temple of Artemis
Artemis Temple model, Miniatürk, Istanbul.
the House of the Virgin Mary
Ashab-i Kehf Cave, Ephesus
The Temple of Artemis, one of the seven wonders of the world, is the first marble-built temple of the ancient world and its bases date back to the 7th century BC. Built by the Lydian king Croesus, dedicated to the goddess Artemis, the building was decorated with bronze sculptures made by the greatest sculptors of the time, Pheidias, Polycleitus, Kresilas and Phradmon, designed by the Greek architect Chersiphron. Its size is 130 x 68 meters and the front gate faces west like other Temples of Artemis (Mother Goddess). The temple was used both as a marketplace and as a religious institution. Temple of Artemis was burned by a Greek named Herostratus who wanted to immortalize his name on July 21, 356 BC. Alexander the Great was born the same night. When Alexander the Great conquered Anatolia, he offered to help rebuild the Temple of Artemis, but he was rejected. There are only a few marble blocks left from the temples.
The excavations on the Temple of Artemis were initiated in 1863 by the contribution of the British Museum and archeology expert John Turtle Wood and in 1869 reached the bases of the Temple of Artemis at a depth of 6 meters.
The building, which is one of the most beautiful buildings of the Roman period, undertook both the library and the tomb monument. When Celsius, the governor of Ephesus, died in 106, his son built the library as a tomb monument in the name of his father. Celsius's sarcophagus is under the western wall of the library. The Front was restored between 1970-1980. Book rolls in the library were hiding in the niches on the walls.
the House of the Virgin Mary
Jesus' mother in Bülbüldağı is the last of Mary. It is believed to have been with John. It is a place of pilgrimage for Christians and visited by some of the popes. Although it is not thought that Mary's dead grave is here in Bülbüldağı, it is believed that Mary was present in Silifke in the present day of the megalite period as described in the Bible.
Seven Sleepers (Ashab-i Kehf)
It is believed that this place, which was converted into a grave church in the Byzantine period, is a cave narrated from the Late Roman emperors that they were sheltered on the outskirts of the Seven Christian Faunal Mountains, who escaped from the persecution of pagans in the time of Decius. Though there are 33 cities in the world claiming that the cave is within its borders, according to the majority of Christian sources, the city is Ephesus, which is considered sacred by Christians. The most known and visited cave in Turkey is Seven Uyurlar cave. It is in Tarsus, the birthplace of Paul. The former name of the Arab sources in the form of Efsus in the form of a delegation made up of scientists in Afşin and the domestic courts in the discovery of the discovery of the case has increased the claim. The other Ashab al-Kahf in Turkey is Lice.
A church built on top of this cave in Ephesus was uncovered in an excavation between 1927-1928, and the graves belonging to the 5th and 6th centuries were also found at the end of the excavation. Inscriptions dedicated to the Seven Sleepers are found both in the graves and on the church walls.
Isa Bey Mosque.
It was built in 1374-75 by Isa Bey from Aydınoğulları to Mimar Shamlı Dımışklıoğlu Ali on Ayasuluk Tepesi. It is located between the Temple of Artemis and Saint Jean Church. There are rich ornaments and china in the mosque exhibiting the first examples of Anatolian mosque architecture. It was also used as a caravanserai in the 19th century
Temple of Hadrian
Temple of Hadrian: On behalf of the Emperor Hadrian, the monument was built as a temple. Corinthian is organized and the founding legend of Ephesus is processed in its friezes. On the back of 20 million TL and 20 YTL banknotes, this temple was used with the Celsus Library.
Temple of Domitian: The temple built in the name of Domitianus, the Emperor thought to be one of the greatest structures in the city, is located opposite the Traianus Fountain. It is determined that there are pillars on the sides of the temple, where only the bases have been reached. The rest of the statue of Domitianus is the head and one arm.
Serapis Temple: Serapis Temple, one of the most interesting structures of Ephesus, is right behind Celsus Library. It is thought that the temple which was converted into a church during the Christian period was made by Egyptians. The temple in Serapis in Turkey is among the Seven Churches in Hrsitiyan, and the other temple in Bergama is better known.
Mary Church: The Church of Mary (Consul Church), the site of the 431 Consul, is the first church built in the name of Mary. It is located to the north of the Liman Hamamı. It is among the first Seven Churches of Christianity.
St. The grave of John in St. Jean's Basilica.
St. Jean Basilica: Built by the Byzantine Emperor, Great Iustinianus, in the central part of the 6-domed basilica, one of the greatest structures of that period, at the bottom is Jesus' favorite haveli. It is claimed that the grave of Jean (John) was found, but no findings were found yet. Here, St. There is also a monument erected in the name of Jean. This church, considered very important for Christians, is located in the Ayasuluk Castle and there is a treasure house and a baptismal center in the north.
Upper Agora and Basilica: It was built by Emperor Augustus and is the site of official meetings and stock exchange transactions. It's ahead of the Odeion.
Octagon: It is a monumental grave belonging to Cleopatra's sister.
Odeon: Ephesus had two councils. One of these meetings was held and concerts were held at the time of the meetings of the Consultative Assembly. It has a capacity of 1,400 people. For this reason, the building is also called "Bouleterion".
Prytaneion (City Hall): Prytan served as mayor of the city. The greatest task was to make sure that the city fire, which symbolizes the immortality of the city in this building with its thick columns, does not sink. Prytan had undertaken this mission in the name of Hestia, the Goddess of the City. There were statues of gods and emperors around the hall. The statues of Artemis in Ephesus were found here and later brought to the museum. The buildings beside him were reserved for the official guests of the city.
Marble Street: It is a street extending from the library to the theater.
Domitianus Square: A building on the north side of the Domitianus Temple is thought to be the Pollio Fountain and hospital on the east, and Memmius Monument on the street in the north. August Gate.
Magnesia Gate (Upper Gate) and East Gymnasium: Ephesus has two entrances. One of them is the Magnesia Gate on the House of the Virgin Mary, which is the eastern gate of the city walls around the city walls. The East Gymnasium is right next to the Magnesia Gate on the Fairy Mountain. Gymnasion is the school of the Roman Age.
Heracles Gate: This gate, built at the end of Roman times, has made Kuretler Caddesi a pedestrian way. The Force God on the front ward has received this name because of Heracles reliefs.
Mazeus Mitridatis (Agora South) Gate: Built before the Library, during the time of Emperor Augustus. From the gate is passed the Trade Agora (Lower Agora).
Monumental Fountain: The challenge city in front of the Odeion is the "State Agora" (Upper Agora). In the middle of it was the temple of the Egyptian gods (Isis). The Monumental Fountain, built by Laecanus Bassus in 80 BC, is located on the southwest corner of the State Agora. From here you can reach the Domitian Square and the Pollio Fountain, the Domitian Temple, the Memmius Monument and the Heracles Gate, which are clustered around this square.
Traianus Fountain: It is one of the two-storied monuments on the street. The sphere of the world seen under the feet of the statue of the Emperor Traianus standing in the middle is symbolic.
Heroon: It is a fountain structure made in the name of Androklos, the legendary founder of Ephesus. The front part was changed during the Byzantine period.
Slope Houses: In the multi-storey houses built on the terraces, the city's wealthy residents lived. These houses, which are the most beautiful of the peristyle house type, were in the comfort of modern houses. The walls are covered with marble and frescoes, and the bases are covered with mosaics. All of the houses have a heating system and baths.
Grand Theater: The building at the end of Marble Street is the largest outdoor theater in the ancient world with a capacity of 24,000 people. The ornate and three-story stage building is completely destroyed. The seating steps are three sections. Theater, St. It was a place for Paul's sermons.
Palace Building, Stadium Street, Stadium and Gymnasium: A part of the Byzantine palace and the cadden have been restored. The stadium in the shape of a horse is the place where sports games and competitions are held in the ancient times. Gladiator games were also performed during the late Roman period. The Vedius Gymnasium next to the stadium is the hamam-school complex. The Vedius Gymnasium is located on the northern tip of the city, right next to the walls of the Byzantine period.
Theater Gymnasium: Both the school and the large courtyard with bathing function are open. Here, marble pieces belonging to the theater are arranged for restoration. Agora: 110 x 110 meters open area in the middle of the area surrounded by portals and shops is a field. The agora was the commercial and cultural center of the city. Agora is the starting point of Marble Street.
Hammam and Public Toilet: It is the most important social structure of the Romans. There are cold, warm and hot parts. It was repaired during the Byzantine period. The public toilet, which is a pool in the middle, was also used as a meeting place.
Liman Caddesi: Liman Caddesi (Arcadiane Caddesi), with its columns and marble paved streets extending from the Grand Theater to the Antik Liman which is now fully occupied, is the longest street of Ephesus. Monuments were built on the 600-meter-long street during the city's Christian era. The four Apostolic Monument with four columns, each of which is sculpted by one of the apostles, is almost in the middle of the cadden.
Port Gymnasium and Harbor Bath: It is a large group of buildings at the end of Liman Caddesi. Some of it was dug.
St. John Castle: There are glass and water cisterns in the castle. It is the highest point around Ephesus. Moreover, the hill where this church is located is the first settlement area of Ephesus Antique City.